Benefits of Eggplant

Eggplant:

Description


Eggplant, or aubergine as it is called in France, is a vegetable long prized for its beauty as well as its unique taste and texture. Eggplants belong to the plant family of Solanaceae, also commonly known as nightshades, and are kin to the tomato, bell pepper and potato. Eggplants grow in a manner much like tomatoes, hanging from the vines of a plant that grows several feet in height.

One of the most popular varieties of eggplant in North America looks like a pear-shaped egg, a characteristic from which its name is derived. The skin is glossy and deep purple in color, while the flesh is cream colored and spongy in consistency. Contained within the flesh are seeds arranged in a conical pattern.

In addition to this variety, eggplant is also available in a cornucopia of other colors including lavender, jade green, orange, and yellow-white, as well as in sizes and shapes that range from that of a small tomato to a large zucchini.

While the different varieties do vary slightly in taste and texture, one can generally describe the eggplant as having a pleasantly bitter taste and spongy texture. In many recipes, eggplant fulfills the role of being a complementary ingredient that balances the surrounding flavors of the other more pronounced ingredients.

Nutritional Benefits

Eggplants are low in calories and are an excellent source of dietary fiber. They are also a very good source of potassium and vitamins B1 and B6. Eggplants are also a good source of folic acid, magnesium, coper, manganese, and niacin. Eggplant skins contain an anthocyanin flavonoid called nasunin.  It's A potent antioxidant and free-radical scavenger. Studies have shown that nasunin protects cell membranes from damage. Nasunin also helps to move excess iron out of the body. Eggplants may also help to lower cholesterol levels.

Health Benefits


In addition to featuring a host of vitamins and minerals, eggplant also contains important phytonutrients, many which have antioxidant activity. Phytonutrients contained in eggplant include phenolic compounds, such caffeic and chlorogenic acid, and flavonoids, such as nasunin.

Brain Food
Research on eggplant has focused on an anthocyanin phytonutrient found in eggplant skin called nasunin. Nasunin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to protect cell membranes from damage. In animal studies, nasunin has been found to protect the lipids (fats) in brain cell membranes. Cell membranes are almost entirely composed of lipids and are responsible for protecting the cell from free radicals, letting nutrients in and wastes out, and receiving instructions from messenger molecules that tell the cell which activities it should perform.

Rich in Phenolic Antioxidant Compounds
Researchers at the US Agricultural Service in Beltsville, Maryland, have found that eggplants are rich sources of phenolic compounds that function as antioxidants. Plants form such compounds to protect themselves against oxidative stress from exposure to the elements, as well as from infection by bacteria and fungi.

The good news concerning eggplant is that the predominant phenolic compound found in all varieties tested is chlorogenic acid, which is one of the most potent free radical scavengers found in plant tissues. Benefits attributed to chlorogenic acid include antimutagenic (anti-cancer), antimicrobial, anti-LDL (bad cholesterol) and antiviral activities.

ARS researchers studied seven eggplant cultivars grown commercially in the U.S. and a diverse collection of exotic and wild eggplants from other counties. In addition to chlorogenic acid, they found 13 other phenolic acids present at significantly varying levels in the commercial cultivars, although chlorogenic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in all of them. Black Magica commercial eggplant cultivar representative of U.S. market types was found to have nearly three times the amount of antioxidant phenolics as the other eggplant cultivars that were studied. In addition to their nutritive potential, the phenolic acids in eggplant are responsible for some eggplants' bitter taste and the browing that results when their flesh is cut. An enzyme called polyphenol oxidase triggers a phenolic reaction that produces brown pigments. Scientists have begun work on developing eggplant cultivars with an optimal balance of phenolics to ensure both optimal nutritional value and pleasing taste.

Cardiovascular Health and Free Radical Protection
When laboratory animals with high cholesterol were given eggplant juice, their blood cholesterol, the cholesterol in their artery walls and the cholesterol in their aortas (the aorta is the artery that returns blood from the heart back into circulation into the body) was significantly reduced, while the walls of their blood vessels relaxed, improving blood flow. These positive effects were likely due not only to nasunin but also to several other terpene phytonutrients in eggplant.

Nasunin is not only a potent free-radical scavenger, but is also an iron chelator. Although iron is an essential nutrient and is necessary for oxygen transport, normal immune function and collagen synthesis, too much iron is not a good thing. Excess iron increases free radical production and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and cancer. Menstruating women, who lose iron every month in their menstrual flow, are unlikely to be at risk, but in postmenopausal women and men, iron, which is not easily excreted, can accumulate. By chelating iron, nasunin lessens free radical formation with numerous beneficial results, including protecting blood cholesterol (which is also a type of lipid or fat) from peroxidation; preventing cellular damage that can promote cancer; and lessening free radical damage in joints, which is a primary factor in rheumatoid arthritis.

Consumption Tips

Wash eggplant thoroughly in cold water before use. Trim the stalk end using sharp knife. Sprinkle a pinch of fine salt or soak the pieces in salt water to remove the bitter compounds. Whole fruit including its skin and fine seeds are edible.

Whole, cubed, or sliced aubergine used in variety of recipes.
Here are some serving tips:
  • Spicy aubergine slices in general used as favorite side dish in salads and appetizers.
  • Brinjals, as they popularly known in South-Asian region, feature mainly in many kinds of Indian cuisines. It can be stew fried, roasted, baked or ground (baingan bartha, baingan chutney) in the preparation of variety of recipes.
  • In Southern India, it is chopped into cubes and used in curry, chutney, and with rice (brinjal pulao).
  • In Southern Europe, Turkey, and Middle-East where aubergines are one of the common ingredients used in variety of delicious recipes like mousaka (eggplant casserole), baba ghanoush (mashed eggplant preparation similar to South Asian baingan ki bartha), breadcrumbs, imam bayildi (stuffed) etc.
  • Stewed Asparagus spears sandwiched with aubergine slice is a popular recipe in Mediterranean region.
  • It is also widely used in pickling.

Caution

Eggplant (aubergine) contains very small amount of nicotine than any other edible plant with a concentration of 0.01mg/100g. However, the amount of nicotine from eggplant or any other food is negligible and therefore shall not warrant against its usage. So, enjoy!
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